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In clearing the crowded gaols, in producing raw materials and food for the city-dwellers of the old land, they played a role of increasing importance in the grand speculation of industrialism—that experiment on which the British people have staked their capital, their mighty energy, their very life-blood.Australia emerged from the degradation of convictism by taking the place for which Spain had proved inadequate in the divided tasks of growing and manufacturing wool, both formerly discharged by Britain herself.The more the policy of a hermit Australia succeeded, the more surely would it bring slothful intellectual standards, and, as a consequence, material decay, until, with scorn, some sea power from the world where necessity had maintained knowledge and energy knocked in the closed door.If she will but rouse her vigorous people to face facts, Australia's geographic position and relative immaturity offer her a role in the world economy of greater importance than that which she has already effectively filled.The realists in opposition applauded each tariff and marketing scheme, but, mistrusting American methods with labour, made haste, by control of state-administrations and by pleas before wage-fixing tribunals, to distribute income more favourably for their supporters.Australia certainly has need of greater self-reliance, but she is not and cannot be another United States of America, In place of the Mississippi Valley and Middle West she has Lake Eyre and an arid, almost uninhabited, central region.The sense of a permanent and secure world was shaken. Keynes, "the most interesting question in the world (of those, at least, to which time will bring us an answer)" was "whether, after a short interval of recovery, material progress would be resumed, or whether, on the other hand, the magnificent episode of the nineteenth century was over." At first it seemed that a prosperity greater than that of pre-war times had come.
In a review of "The Food Supply and Resources of China", read during a recent Pacific Science Congress in Java, a Chinese economist, Shih Tsin Tung, concluded that industrialization and rising standards of living in China would force an increasing percentage of her 492 millions to rely on imported cereals. His countrymen, already consumers of 235 million "tan", or about 920 million bushels, of wheat, would therefore find it imperative to change their food habits. Back to Colonizing BOOK THREE THE COMMONWEALTH XXI. The headwaters of those streams had been captured in some great earth change by the Nepean-Hawkesbury river-system.
The coalition of parties in political power during the post-war decade piled tariff upon tariff in favour of local secondary industries, and sponsored crude plans to exploit the Australian market in favour of struggling export industries.
Their talk ran high of making Australia another United States, drawing increased wealth from the interchange of products within the national boundaries.
Progress on these lines is the logical result of the broader market for Australia's staple exports. The Gold Rushes of 1851-1860 BOOK TWO COLONIAL PARTICULARISM XII. Agricultural Settlement in the Southern Colonies XIV. Possibly the officials of a colony that was primarily a prison cared no more than the aborigines to know what lay beyond the ranges. Taylor's article on "Economic Geography" in the Australian Encyclopaedia, vol. The intruders found a forest-clad country—unkempt, uncanny and unknown.
She is now the leading wool-grower for Continental Europe, Japan and America, as well as for Britain. Plantation Slavery and Secession for North Queensland XV. Like the aborigines, who obtained a sparse living from fish, game and roots, they clung to the harbour shores. Prisoners, emancipists and officer-settlers tilled a few areas of alluvial soil which they found chiefly along the Hawkesbury valley.